How is HIV diagnosed in pregnant women?

All pregnant women should be counseled on the importance of knowing their HIV status. In Illinois, state law requires that all pregnant women be counseled and offered an opt-out HIV test twice during pregnancy. This counseling and testing should ideally take place during the first prenatal visit and again during the third trimester, ideally by the 36th week of pregnancy. In Illinois, women who do not have documentation of HIV testing during the third trimester of pregnancy are counseled and offered opt-out rapid HIV testing upon presentation to labor and delivery. All preliminary positive rapid HIV tests must then be confirmed by a subsequent supplemental HIV test different from the initial test.